Introduction

1Malnutrition is a significant component of many diseases.
True
False

2Protein malnutrition
Also called marasmus
Develops over months and occasionally years.
It is characterized by weight loss, reduced basal metabolism, and depletion of subcutaneous fat.
Develops over several weeks or months.

3Protein-calorie malnutrition
Also called marasmus
Develops over several weeks or months
Characterized by hypoalbuminemia, anemia, muscle atrophy, delayed wound healing, and impaired immunocompetence.
Follows the stress response

4Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)
An adjunctive nutritional intervention when central venous alimentation is not possible.
Nutrition delivered by direct venous infusion.
Nutrition provided by nasogastric, nasoduodenal, or nasojejunal tube feedings.
Administration of parenteral nutrients only at night.

5Cyclical parenteral nutrition
An adjunctive nutritional intervention when central venous alimentation is not possible
Administered via peripheral veins.
Nutrition provided by gastrostomy or jejunostomy.
Administration of parenteral nutrients only at night.